At High Mark Heating & Cooling, we are firm believers that all homes should have mechanical ventilation. With tighter and better-insulated homes these days ventilation is more important than ever to the comfort and health of your indoor air. But even in a very leaky house, one can’t count on bringing in much fresh air on calm days in the spring or fall when there isn’t a pressure differential across the building.
There are 6 ways to ventilate your home and which is best depends on you! We are here to help you make the right ventilation decision for your home or office building. That said, for residents in North Idaho, going with a Balanced Ventilation with Heat Recovery (HRV) is strongly recommended due to our colder climate. Mechanical ventilation always takes energy; with heat recovery the energy penalty of fresh air is minimized. Read below to learn more.
This is almost certainly the most common option in American homes. There is no mechanical system to remove stale indoor air (and moisture) or bring in fresh outside air. In the distant past, when buildings weren’t insulated, this strategy worked reasonably well—relying on the natural leakiness of the house. It’s worth noting, though, that even a leaky house doesn’t ensure good ventilation. For this strategy to work there has to be either a breeze outside or a significant difference in temperature between outdoor and indoors. Either of these conditions creates a pressure difference between indoors and out, driving that ventilation. On calm days in the spring and summer, there might be very little air exchange even in a really leaky house.
In this uncommon strategy, specific design features are incorporated to bring in fresh air and get rid of stale air. One approach is to create a solar chimney in which air is heated by the sun, becomes more buoyant, and rises up and out through vents near the top of the building; this lowers the pressure in the house, which draws fresh air in through specially placed inlet ports. Many homeowners may think of opening windows as part of their ventilation strategy, but most people only open windows in the summer—if at all—and because of the pressure differential issue just mentioned, open windows don’t guarantee good air exchange.
Exhaust-Only Mechanical Ventilation
This is a relatively common strategy in which small exhaust fans, usually in bathrooms, operate either continuously or intermittently to exhaust stale air and moisture generated in those rooms. This strategy creates a modest negative pressure in the house, and that pulls in fresh air either through cracks and other air-leakage sites or through strategically placed intentional make-up air inlets. An advantage of this strategy is simplicity and low cost. A disadvantage is that the negative pressure can pull in radon and other soil gases that we don’t want in houses.
Supply-Only Mechanical Ventilation
As the name implies, a fan brings in fresh air, and stale air escapes through cracks and air-leakage sites in the house. The air supply may be delivered to one location, dispersed through ducts, or supplied to the ducted distribution system of a forced-air heating system for dispersal. A supply-only ventilation system pressurizes a house, which can be a good thing in keeping radon and other contaminants from entering the house, but it risks forcing moisture-laden air into wall and ceiling cavities where condensation and moisture problems can occur.
Much better ventilation is provided through a balanced system in which separate fans drive both inlet and exhaust airflow. This allows us to control where the fresh air comes from, where that fresh air is delivered, and from where exhaust air is drawn. Balanced ventilation systems can be either point-source or ducted. With ducted systems, it makes sense to deliver fresh air to spaces that are most lived in (living room, bedrooms, etc.) and exhaust indoor air from places where moisture or pollutants are generated (bathrooms, kitchen, hobby room).
Balanced Ventilation With Heat Recovery
If there are separate fans to introduce fresh air and exhaust indoor air, it makes a lot of sense to locate these fans together and include an air-to-air heat exchanger so that the outgoing house air will precondition the incoming outdoor air. This air-to-air heat exchanger—more commonly referred to as a heat-recovery ventilator or HRV—is the way to go in colder climates. A slightly different version, known as an energy-recovery ventilator ERV, is similar but transfers moisture as well as heat from one airstream to the other, keeping more of the desirable humidity in the house in the winter and reducing the amount of humidity introduced from outdoors in the summer.